Analysis of the Wave Energy Reduction of Rubble Mound Breakwaters



  • Burcharth, H.F., Kramer, M., Lamberti, A., & Zanuttigh, B. (2006). Structural stability of detached low crested breakwaters. Coastal Engineering, 53(4), 381-394.
  • Palmer, Gavin, and Christian, Colin D. (1998). Design and construction of rubble mound breakwaters. IPENZ Transactions, 25(1).
  • Ranasinghe, R., Larson, M., & Savioli, J. (2010). Shoreline response to a single shore-parallel submerged breakwater. Coastal Engineering 57(11-12), 1006-1017.
  • Ranasinghe, R. & Turner, I.L. (2006). Shoreline response to submerged structures: A review. Coastal Engineering, 53(1), 65-79.
  • Vaselali, A. and S.A. Azarmsa (2009). Analysis of breakwater construction effects on sedimentation and pattern. Journal of Applied Science, 9, 3522-3530.

Photo Credits and Locations

Home page photographs
Left image:
Right image: Deltares Website